@Timo: Agreed with suggesting wifi tethering, but that doesn't address OP's issue.
@OP: we don't know what type of handset you are using. Generally speaking, assuming you're using a Samsung phone and a Windows laptop, you would install the Samsung drivers to your Windows laptop (would require an internet connection to download the drivers). If you're using a non-Samsung phone, replace "Samsung" with LG/HTC/Sony/Motorola/etc. and grab the drivers associated with your handset. If you're using a Mac, you'd likely have to get the Mac drivers for the phone (if available). Most phones should work out of the box on Linux, if they don't there should be Linux-specific forums to assist with your handset. Once the drivers are installed and configured and the phone is connected via USB, enable tethering (not wifi hotspot) and you'll be good to go.
You always have the option of wifi tethering. Assuming your wifi works on your laptop, you would connect to your phone's "hotspot" the same way as connecting to any wifi network.